Chitta Shuddhi[②] is a clichéd term today. Every spiritual aspirant has heard it, and has heard it a lot. We may have to break through the crust of this cliché to correctly grasp its meaning. It is generally held that work done in the right attitude brings Chitta Shuddhi. What does this mean?
According to Vedanta, the human mind is conceived of as having four distinct functions. The mind can record. It has a memory storage system. This is called Manas. The mind can recall information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions from memory. This function is called Chitta. The mind can decide firmly. This function is called Buddhi. The mind can manifest an agency, which feels responsible for all the activities done by the body and the mind. This functional aspect is called Ahamkara. Thus, the human mind, called Antahkarana, has four distinct functional aspects. We should remember that these are not physical compartments in the brain. These are functional distinctions.
Now, Chitta Shuddhi refers to purity of the Chitta. Does that imply that the Chitta is impure, or that it can be impure? And that it should be made pure? If that is so, then what is purity or impurity with reference to the Chitta?
As we have just now mentioned, Chitta is a sort of mental platform where the data is retrieved from the memory store-house. How can a platform become pure or impure? You see, when the right kind of memories is recalled, it results in the right kind of attitudes conducive to right actions. Even if one wrong memory is retrieved from the Manas into the Chitta, then, a series of wrong attitudes are manifested and that could lead to no end of troubles in our life. It is common knowledge that one negative comment made by someone gets lodged in our Manas and it keeps coming back into our Chitta again and again and keeps killing our enthusiasm and initiative, paralyzing us. We see this quite often in our lives. “No. You can’t ever do that. You simply can’t. You will never be able to do that!” Comments like this get lodged in our Manas. Especially if made by someone who matters in our life, like our parents, or teachers, or friends. And almost always we see that such negative, critical comments keep popping up into our Chitta involuntarily. We don’t seem to have much control over its popping up or not popping up. And then we get down, depressed. Each such activity of the Chitta adds one more link into the chain that inactivates us, makes us weak and gradually but surely renders us utterly helpless against its poisonous effect. Such involuntary activity of the Chitta is considered impure. Technically, it is called ‘Chitta Malinya’.
As against such involuntary activity of the Chitta, we can have greater and greater control over what exact thoughts and feelings arise from the Manas into the Chitta. We can manipulate our attitudes by choosing judiciously. Thus we can be the makers of our own destiny. We alone, among all living beings populating this planet, have this ability to make such choices. In order to understand how this can be done, we may have to understand how data is thrown into the Chitta from the depths of Manas. Once we understand that mechanism, we can then try to discover where exactly we can exercise our control over that mechanism and then bring the entire process under our will.
There is an active, dynamic connection between the senses and the Antahkarana. Senses bring in information into the mind. In response to those bits of information, related bits of information rise from the memory. Anything that rises from the memory enters the Chitta for further processing. Generally, thoughts rising from the memory and entering Chitta are neither harmful nor beneficial for our attitudes and actions. It is the feelings and emotions that come attached with thoughts that are dangerous. Generally, both thoughts and feelings arise together. They don’t arise separately. Nor is it easy to separate them in the Chitta. Associations between the thoughts and feelings are already made in the past by Buddhi and stored in the Manas. Manas doesn’t do anything new. It just sorts them systematically and stores them. And when the occasion arises, it just brings up the relevant thoughts and their associated feelings and presents them into the Chitta.
Take for example the case of cigarettes. Let us assume that the eye sees a pack of cigarette, or the nose picks up a whiff of cigarette smoke in the air. This data is passed onto the Manas. In the Manas, there is a rapid sifting and matching of this data with similar data stored in there. And the correct matches are thrown into the Chitta along with the incoming data. Then the Buddhi decides that they are indeed the same; it is indeed cigarette that was seen or smelt. Once this happens, the Ahamkara gives its stamp on the decision of the Buddhi and announces ‘I have seen a cigarette’ or ‘I have smelt a cigarette.’ This in itself is quite harmless. The entire trouble starts when along with the matching data, the Manas throws up associated feelings also into the Chitta. Feelings like ‘cigarette is likeable’ or ‘cigarette is enjoyable’, etc. When the pieces of information are being processed and it is determined as to what has been seen or smelt, parallel processing takes place in the Chitta and Buddhi with respect to the feelings that have risen from the Manas. Finally, the Buddhi decides ‘Yes, cigarettes are very enjoyable. Cigarettes can be smoked now.’ Immediately, the Ahamkara steps in and puts its all powerful stamp on this decision and says, “I shall smoke one now!”
This is how the entire process works. It takes a lot of time to say all these. But the actual process takes place in no time, almost instantaneously. Now, where exactly in this entire process can we break in and assume control over the process? Let us look at the process once more.
We have come to know that senses bring information into the mind. And mind responds with recalling similar thoughts and feelings. The feelings, especially, that rise in the mind, propel us to further action. Now, the resultant action could be beneficial or harmful depending on the quality of feelings that have arisen. Now, theoretically, we can have two situations wherein we can gain control over this process. We shall continue to use the above cigarette example for ease of explaining.
- Supposing we can ensure that along with the ideas of cigarettes, there arise the feeling ‘cigarettes are dangerous’ or ‘cigarettes are repulsive’, then, as a result of the rising up of the thoughts and feelings in the Chitta, there will be no impulse to smoke.
- Supposing we can ensure that only the thoughts arise and no feelings arise, then also, there will be no resultant impulse to smoke.
In order for the 1st situation to occur, we have to first of all ensure that there is a lot of record of the feeling ‘cigarettes are dangerous’ or ‘cigarettes are repulsive’, inside the Manas. If such records are plenty, and are very intense, then we may have the control we are looking for.
As we have already said above, the 2nd situation is very hard to achieve for most of us. It is almost impossible to separate thoughts and associated feelings. Not that it is totally impossible. But, for most of us, it is well nigh impossible. We shall however see the method of doing this later on. For now, we shall concentrate of the 1st option.
So, the question now is – how to make sure that there is a lot of feeling of a particular type inside our Manas. And how to ensure that there is an association of all those feelings with some particular kind of thoughts.
Generally, we see that life’s experiences give us the thoughts and feelings. These thoughts and feelings get associated, as a matter of course, and get stored in our Manas. Can we manipulate what thoughts and feelings enter our mind and get stored there? Yes, we can; by the process of imagination.[③]
Imagination is a great tool that human beings have. It is also, perhaps, the least understood tool too. If used with knowledge, it can work wonders for us. Every great achievement of man has come as a result of imagination. Man was a forest and cave dweller. By imagination, he started building houses. Man was a creature at the mercy of nature for food. By imagination, he started cultivation. Man was an animal, making erratic noises with his vocal chords, much as any other bird or animal. By imagination he developed language and communication. Man was just like any other animal with a herd instinct. By imagination, he has become a social being. Everything that distinguishes man from his original animal roots is a result of his imagination. And it is this very tool that can now help us to achieve what we are looking for – storing a fund of feelings and thoughts of the kind we choose, and thereby controlling the quality of our life.
Intense and prolonged imagination can make us store whatever kind of thoughts and associated feelings we want inside our Manas. The great problem before an aspirant is how to feel that he is divine, that he is not flesh and blood and thoughts and ideas and emotions alone, but also spiritual. This calls for an active spiritualization of all aspects of our life. This spiritualization is called Karma Yoga. We don’t stop our activities in our effort to lead a spiritual life. Instead, we try to transmute all our actions. How is this done?
This is done by a two-fold process. Firstly, a fixed time is identified when we sit down unencumbered and follow a set of imaginations. This is called Upasana. Secondly, we learn and practice a new way of working, assisted by our imagination, which helps us in reinforcing these imaginations, turning them into reality.
Upasana or meditation, in the beginner, leads to sleep. This is a general complaint among aspirants. Why? This is mainly because they do not have a fixed pattern of imagination during their Upasana. Swami Yatishwarananda says ‘Everything about a sadhaka must be definite.’ This definiteness is often lacking. So they doze in the name of Upasana. In most cases, what the aspirants do is a static, dry visualization of the Ishta’s face, or a monotone in-droning of the Ishta mantra. Invariably the mind slips into a stupor. Mind is active. It has to be given variety. Monotony dulls it into sleep. Monotony is the best lullaby. Imagination is seldom used in Upasana, whereas, ironically, the central aspect of Upasana is imagination. Aspirants seldom realize that great freedom is available for them for one’s inner activity. We rarely come across an aspirant who sets his Ishta mantra to a musical raga and does his japa. Rarer still is an aspirant who uses his Ishta mantra as a lead string to his faculty of imagination. Very rare indeed is the aspirant who uses all his 5 senses during his Upasana.[④]
As a result of performing the Upasana regularly and punctually for a long period of time, say for 10 to 12 years at a stretch, a huge set of thoughts and feelings are stored up in the Manas. This new set of thoughts and feelings bring about a change in our attitude towards ourselves. This change in our attitude towards ourselves is the first vital change required. This leads to a new self-image.[⑤] From this new self-image arise a series of related changes.
Firstly, our attitude of others changes. Next, there is a new view of how we see our actions. There comes a change in our motives. Our reactions change. We note that our world, however, has not changed objectively. It is the same world where we have always lived. But, subjectively, there has been a revolution. Every time we engage ourselves in any activity amidst people, these changes are further reinforced strongly.
Gradually, we start feeling more and more non-material, spiritual and less and less body and flesh and bones. When exactly does this change occur? It is difficult to say. But, as a cumulative effect of our relentless efforts at Upasana and Karma Yoga, this change does occur. And it is when we interact with other people through some kind of meaningful work that we are able to discern how much of this change has occurred. This change is what is called Chitta Shuddhi.
I hope I have sufficiently explained the fact that Chitta Shuddhi is to be effected by means of employing our imagination faculty wisely. I hope it is clear now that if we manipulate our imaginative faculty rightly, we can achieve Chitta Shuddhi as a result. We may now see some special techniques for employing our imaginative faculty.
Firstly, we have the Sadhana Pranali prescribed by the Guru. This is generally a structured set of imaginations, culminating in Japa and meditation of the Ishta at the core of our consciousness. There is a technique called ‘Visual Imagery’ that is particularly helpful in supplementing this Sadhana Pranali. We need to make a note of the different places associated with our Ishta, either by directly visiting those places or at least by seeing pictures and photographs of the same. Then, we need to visualize our Ishta and ourselves in those surroundings. This is how, gradually, the Ishta becomes living for us. Visual imagery also comprises of vividly imagining various locational settings in our mind where we have had feelings of great calmness, serenity and exaltedness.
Secondly, we may develop the auditory imaginative faculty but depending on rhythm, tune and feeling associated with both. Here the mantra comes in handy. Mind is a slave to tune and rhythm. A soulful tune and a catchy rhythm can make even the most restless mind recollected and concentrated quickly. We may learn to exploit this weakness of the mind in order to control and train it.
Thirdly, there is a technique called ‘Role-playing’. We all can imagine, no, fantasize. In fact, all of us do fantasize often. It is called Day-dreaming. We can learn to place ourselves in some imaginative relationship with our Ishta, say, as his servant, or his child, imagine that all our activities are in a definite way an outcome of this imagined relationship. Such long-drawn fantasizing can result in making tremendous changes in our Chitta and Ahamkara.
Fourthly, there is the age-old technique of Auto-Suggestion. We are what we suggest ourselves to be. And we are all constantly suggesting things to ourselves. If used with wisdom, this can bring a sea change in ourselves.
I remember a senior monk once telling me. He used to constantly imagine that the Omkara was playing in the background of his mind. Whenever any word issued from him, he would imagine that this Omkara was transforming itself into those words. He told me that for many years, this was just a playful imagination for him, but, later on he started feeling that this was really so, and that this experience used to fill him up with unspeakable joy![⑥] This very monk had the peculiar habit of rocking in his seat, at all places and times. Whenever he used to be sitting, say, waiting for someone, or on the programme stage, waiting for his turn to speak, etc, he would be found gently rocking. I later on found out from him that whenever he got any free time, without the external world impinging on his attention, he would feel the mantra slowly rising up within his consciousness and that its sound was similar to that of the chime of a grand church bell, which would sway his body ever so slightly, but most rhythmically and at such times, there was a palpable sweetness on his face, radiating all around him.
Another senior monk of our Order told me a very personal experience of his. He was in the Training Center, a sincerely struggling aspirant. One day in the Main Temple, he saw a German lady and lust flared up in his mind. Instead of getting overly troubled, he started imagining strongly that this lady was a colorful butterfly which had come hopping to the lotus flower of Sri Ramakrishna located in his heart. The butterfly would sit there for a few moments and then flutter away to another heart, while the lotus flower of Sri Ramakrishna would continue to abide in his heart forever. He said that this line of imagination helped him to gain control over himself very quickly!
There was another monk I knew whose duty was to be the chauffer of a senior monk. He was basically a monastic attendant who doubled up as a driver most of the times. He confided this to me. “Whenever I used to drive around the town, I would ask myself ‘what is this job I am doing? How will this ever lead to my goal of God-realization?’ and I used to become depressed at times. Then one day I suddenly felt that this car was my body, I the driver, was the intellect, and that the Swami sitting in the back seat was the Atman. I started feeling this quite intensely, based on that verse from the Katha Upanishad. And I was a driver for about four or five years. What unspeakable joy I used to feel after a couple of years of imagining like this!”
Once I met a monk who served in one of our Schools in Mysore. He used to ask himself often if anyone at all achieved God-realization by performing such a mundane job as working in a School. Then he started imagining that the school was actually Baranagore Math in disguise. He was able to clearly visualize that he was Swami Vivekananda and all his colleagues were other Direct Disciples and that he was trying to infuse all of them with his burning enthusiasm and things like that. He said that using this particular brand of imagery and role-playing, he was able to maintain his spiritual tenor during his trying tenure in that school. Later when he was leaving for America, having served as an Editor of one of our magazines, I happened to meet him in Belur Math. He told me that he was able to continue this habit even while he was in the Himalayas.
I once met a visiting monk of our Order while I was at Belgaum. While discussing with him, he showed me a small piece of paper on which he had scribbled his particular technique of Upasana. Now, this monk was not a very senior one when I met him, but all the same, I was struck by the innovativeness and ingenuity he exhibited in re-structuring the technique in order to make it more fruitful and meaningful. He did not allow me to write it down. But I quickly made a mental note of it and put it on paper as soon as I reached my room. I reproduce it [although not very exact] below:
- Sit down comfortably. Breathe rhythmically. Attach forceful thoughts with your breath. Chant the verse ‘Tejosi, tejomayi dehi…’ with each breath.
- Chant the Shanti Mantras. Imagine strongly that waves of peace, harmony and bliss are emanating from your heart and gushing forth in all directions and crashing themselves on people at other shores, inundating them in peace, harmony and bliss.
- Suggest to yourself very strongly – this body is strong & healthy. This mind is pure and full of veerya. With the help of this body & mind, I shall realize God in this life itself with His grace.
- Imagine that these imaginations have purified you. Now, imagine that you slowly enter your heart chamber. You are able to see a beautiful lotus flower with 8 petals, all opened out. The flower is made of the softest light.
- Imagine that your Guru’s form materializes on that lotus flower. His body is made up of white light. He is smiling very graciously. He beckons you near him. You go up to him. You offer flowers at his feet. He is gracious on you. So, you spontaneously feel like worshipping him. He then utters the Ishta mantra in your ears many times. You repeat the mantra after him.
- Slowly you find that as you go on repeating the mantra after your Guru, the Guru’s form is getting morphed into that of your Ishta! Again, the form is made up of light, and that light suffuses your entire heart chamber. You feel your heart chamber filled with that light, which is very joyful.
- Offer pushpa, gandha, dhoopa, deepa and naivedya to the Ishta. He accepts all these with great joy, and caresses your chin many times. Now, call him to have his food. Serve him with great delight. Ask him many dishes again and again. Fan him gently while he enjoys the dishes. Each sense organ brings in many data, each of which is a dish for your Ishta. After His food, wash his hands. Allow Him to sleep & rest or sit down comfortably on your heart lotus.
- He is watching every move your senses & mind make. He is controlling you in every way, and protecting you.
- Sing some good bhajans to entertain Him. The timing, tune and your voice are perfect. He enjoys the best, and the very slightest disharmony puts Him off.
- After sometime, take Him out into the garden of your heart for a walk. Engage in small talk with Him. Tell Him what all happened yesterday, what all you plan to do today. Listen to His advice. Imagine Him speaking to you. His conversations generally start with something related to your activities, but soon they become spiritual advices. Memorize some wonderful passages from the Gospel or Inspired Talks, and strongly imagine that He is now telling you those words. His words are powerful. You may imagine that voice as a fire burning into the recesses of your heart, those regions which store all your past Karma and which are as such inaccessible to you.
- After sometime, very reluctantly, ask His permission to take leave of Him. He will continue there for the rest of the day. During the course of the day, visit Him sometimes there. Report the happenings of the day to Him.
- Consider that all the people you interact with during the day are devotees coming to meet Him in your heart. Each interaction is therefore most pure.
There was another senior monk I knew who used to conduct Bhajan programmes called Satsangas for devotees in various towns and cities in Karnataka. He used to have his unique play list of bhajans. Every morning, he would sing a set of songs in the Prayer Hall. After an extended period of observation, I was able to discern that although the particular songs varied often, there was a trend in his play list. Generally, it would consist of the following:
- Omkara (for about 5 minutes)
- Shanti mantra (any one)
- Medha Sukta
- Durga Sukta
- Guru stotra
- Ramakrishna Dhyana mantra (Abhedananda’s)
- A bhajan on Holy Mother
- A couple of songs composed by either Tulasidas (Vinay patrika) or Surdas or Kabir or the Dasas of Karnataka, full of self-abnegation.
- Meditation ( for about 5 minutes)
- Purnahuti mantra.
I asked him many times why he would always sing the same things again and again and yet again for years on end. He was an acclaimed singer. He knew hundreds of songs and had a mellifluous voice and enthralled his audience. Yet in the morning, every day, year after year, this above play list he would invariably sing in the Prayer Hall. It took about an hour.
He never gave me a reply. Each time he used to smile and say ‘Try to find out’. Many years later, it suddenly flashed to me that his play list was following the structure of the mantra he had received from his Guru. I knew what mantra he had received because he had once confided in me. I was thrilled. I had never before imagined that one could replicate the meaning and structure of the mantra in the activities we do!
[①] This article will be relevant to a person who has taken Mantra Deeksha in the Ramakrishna Mission and is struggling to achieve spiritual transformations in the line of the Ramakrishna Mission tradition.
[②] In this article, we have tried to explain the technical terms of Hindu spirituality in an easy language, so as to be comprehensible to the layman. So, in many places, the exact technical translation of the Hindu jargon is not followed.
[③] “The whole universe is imagination, but one set of imagination will cure another set…Some imaginations help to break the bondage of the rest…Imagination will lead you to the highest even more rapidly and easily than reasoning…” says Swami Vivekananda in the Inspired Talks.
[④] “There is great scope for experiment in our spiritual practices” says Swami Yatishwarananda in the Meditation & Spiritual life.
[⑤] Abraham Maslow, the famous psychologist, used to say, “What is necessary to change a man is to change his awareness of himself.”
[⑥] We may note here Swami Yatishwarananda’s words, “All our imaginations ought to be about the Real, so that these imaginations will one day become real for us.”